GNU Linux/Ubuntu

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Revision as of 16:12, 20 September 2012 by Deoren (talk | contribs) (Spacing tweaks)

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These are my notes for various Ubuntu tasks.


Package install status cloning

Other descriptions:

  • Ubuntu cloning
  • Ubuntu install cloning
  • etc


  1. sudo dpkg –-get-selections > packages.txt
  2. Copy packages.txt to the remote machine
  3. sudo dpkg –-set-selections < packages.txt
  4. sudo apt-get dselect-upgrade

Ubuntu as a VMware guest

VMware Tools: Installing the appropriate kernel headers for compilation

sudo apt-get install linux-headers-$(uname -r)

Shared Folders: correct fstab options


  • User Id is 1000
  • /mnt/hgfs folder exists
  • VMware Tools are installed
  • You don't need the mount points available at boot
.host:/ /mnt/hgfs vmhgfs defaults,ttl=5,uid=1000,gid=1000,nobootwait 0 0

Building VMware Tools

First, mount the tools installer iso from VMware Workstation, the vSphere Client or VMware Fusion. Then proceed with these steps. Note the suggestion about running the tools installer manually the first time.

cd /tmp
mount /dev/sr0 /media
tar zxf /media/VMware*.gz
cd vmware-tools-distrib

# You probably want to run this manually the first time so your system-specific settings are set
# Note: Not sure where they're stored, but they appear to be saved between tool rebuilds
./  --default

Enabling VNC Server

Start at boot

  1. Login as USER [1]
  2. vncpasswd
  3. sudo nano /etc/rc.local
  4. su - user -c "cd /home/user/ && vncserver :1 -geometry 1024x768 -depth 24" 2>/dev/null &
  1. USER is a non-root account that the vncserver will be running as

Enable Gnome

nano /home/user/.vnc/xstartup

Include the following:

xrdb $HOME/.Xresources
xsetroot -solid grey
#x-terminal-emulator -geometry 80x24+10+10 -ls -title "$VNCDESKTOP Desktop" &
#x-window-manager &

# Fix to make GNOME work

Quick UFW rule list

  1. Set the default rule to deny everything
    ufw default deny
  2. Allow in web traffic from "the world" to port 80
    ufw allow 80
  3. Allow ssh from a trusted network
    ufw allow from to any port 22
  4. Enable the rules we've just set
    ufw enable
  5. Show the enabled rules
    ufw status

Viewing installed packages

dpkg --get-selections | grep -v deinstalled

Cleaning out old kernels

For this example, we want to keep these two kernels and get rid of all the others.

We first get the list of kernels installed. I've intentionally trimmed the list to 10 lines.

dpkg --get-selections | grep linux-image
root@silo:~# dpkg --get-selections | grep linux-image | tail -n 10
linux-image-2.6.32-38-generic-pae               install
linux-image-2.6.32-39-generic                   install
linux-image-2.6.32-39-generic-pae               install
linux-image-2.6.32-40-generic                   install
linux-image-2.6.32-40-generic-pae               install
linux-image-2.6.32-41-generic                   install
linux-image-2.6.32-41-generic-pae               install
linux-image-generic                             install
linux-image-generic-pae                         install
linux-image-server                              install

As you can see in the list, linux-image-2.6.32-41-generic* is the last one in the list and uname -r confirms the currently running kernel:


We'll want to leave that one in place, so we'll need to exclude it from the list that we'll be removing. There are a LOT of ways this could be done, but the approach below is the one I use.

# Set a variable in the shell that contains MOST of the current running kernel. If
# we match exactly we'll exclude any pae or non-pae versions of the kernel
CURRENT_KERNEL=$(uname -r| cut -c 1-15)



# Print a list of kernels we'll be removing
for kernel in $(dpkg --get-selections | grep -viE "${FILTER_OUT}" | grep -iEo "${MATCH_ON_REGEX}"); do echo $kernel; done

# Start the removal process
for kernel in $(dpkg --get-selections | grep -viE "${FILTER_OUT}" | grep -iEo "${MATCH_ON_REGEX}"); do apt-get remove $kernel; done